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Kidney Stones: Types, Symptoms, and Causes

Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs on either side of the spine, below the ribs, and behind the belly. Kidneys’ major function is the removal of waste and fluid from the blood. Sometimes, when the body produces too much of certain wastes and does not have enough fluid to flush it out. This waste builds up and sticks together and form kidney stone(s). Let us know more about this condition.


An individual is more likely to develop kidney stones if:

  • They have had kidney stones before
  • Someone in the family has had kidney stones before
  • They do not drink enough water
  • They follow a diet high in protein, sodium, and/or sugar
  • They are overweight or obese
  • They have had gastric bypass surgery or another intestinal surgery
  • They have polycystic kidney disease or another cystic kidney disease
  • They have a certain condition that causes urine to contain high levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid or calcium
  • They have a condition that causes swelling or irritation in bowel or joints


Small kidney stones may not cause any symptoms and may even pass easily through the urinary tract. However, a larger kidney stone may cause the following symptoms:

  • Pain while urinating
  • Sharp pain in the back or lower abdomen
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Blood in urine

An individual experiencing these symptoms should contact a kidney doctor nearby.


Kidney stones are majorly categorised into four types.

Calcium stones

These are the most common type of kidney stones and are usually made of calcium oxalate (though they may also consist of calcium phosphate or maleate).

Uric acid stones

These are more common in men than in women. It develops when urine is too acidic.

Struvite stones

These are made of magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate and is usually found in people who are suffering from urinary tract infection.

Cystine stones

These are made of a chemical (cystine) that the body makes naturally. These stones are very rare and are usually caused due to a genetic disorder.

It is important to seek proper treatment to avoid the worsening of symptoms and further complications. You can refer to a reputed medical and healthcare facility with dedicated nephrology department that offers quality kidney stone treatment in India.

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